**BIOCHEMISTRY CALCULATIONS AND VIVA IN CARBOHYDRATES.**

Carbohydrate is a broad subdivision of biochemistry being one of the macromolecules in the body. The following are some calculation questions and answers related to carbohydrates that will make you ace your examinations.

- Q: What is the molecular formula of glucose?

A: C6H12O6

- Q: Calculate the molecular weight of glucose.

A: 180.16 g/mol

- Q: How many moles are there in 45 grams of sucrose (C12H22O11)?

A: 0.125 moles

- Q: Convert 120 grams of fructose (C6H12O6) into moles.

A: 0.667 moles

- Q: If 2 moles of maltose (C12H22O11) are present, how many glucose units does it contain?

A: 4 glucose units

- Q: Calculate the percentage composition of carbon in glucose (C6H12O6).

A: 40% carbon

- Q: How many oxygen atoms are there in 1 mole of lactose (C12H22O11)?

A: 11 moles of oxygen atoms

- Q: If a solution contains 30 grams of sucrose in 500 ml of water, what is its molarity?

A: 0.1667 M

- Q: How many calories are obtained from completely burning 1 mole of glucose?

A: 686 kcal

- Q: Calculate the reducing sugar content if a sample contains 25 grams of lactose (C12H22O11).

A: 25 grams (All lactose is a reducing sugar.)

- Q: A cereal bar contains 15 grams of carbohydrates and 2 grams of fiber. What is the net carbohydrate content?

A: 13 grams (Net carbs = Total carbs – Fiber)

- Q: If 75% of the starch is digested in the small intestine, how many grams of a 50g starch serving are absorbed?

A: 37.5 grams

- Q: What is the glycemic load of a food with a glycemic index of 45 and 30 grams of carbohydrates per serving?

A: 13.5 (Glycemic Load = Glycemic Index × Carbohydrates ÷ 100)

- Q: How many glycosidic bonds are there in maltose (C12H22O11)?

A: 2 glycosidic bonds

- Q: A glucose solution contains 10% glucose by mass. How many grams of glucose are in 250 ml of this solution?

A: 25 grams

- Q: Calculate the total number of atoms in one molecule of sucrose (C12H22O11).

A: 45 atoms

- Q: What is the molar mass of fructose (C6H12O6) in grams/mole?

A: 180.16 g/mol

- Q: If 1 mole of galactose (C6H12O6) weighs 180.16 grams, what is the mass of 2 moles of galactose?

A: 360.32 grams

- Q: How many chiral centers are there in cellulose (C6H10O5)?

A: 10 chiral centers

- Q: What is the empirical formula of ribose if it contains 40% carbon, 53.3% oxygen, and 6.7% hydrogen by mass?

A: C5H10O5

- Q: Convert 0.25 moles of lactose (C12H22O11) into grams.

A: 55 grams

- Q: What is the percentage of water in honey, given that it contains 80% carbohydrates and has a water content of 20%?

A: 20% water

- Q: If 50 grams of sucrose (C12H22O11) are dissolved in 500 ml of water, what is its molality?

A: 0.833 mol/kg

- Q: Calculate the energy content of 100 grams of fructose (C6H12O6) in calories.

A: 387 kcal

- Q: How many non-reducing ends are there in a linear glucose polymer with 20 glucose units?

A: 2 non-reducing ends

- Q: If lactose (C12H22O11) is a reducing sugar and is composed of galactose and glucose, how many reducing ends does it have?

A: 2 reducing ends

- Q: What is the osmolarity of a 0.5 M glucose (C6H12O6) solution?

A: 0.5 osmol/L

- Q: If 25 grams of maltose (C12H22O11) are fermented, how many ethanol molecules can be produced (C2H5OH)?

A: 7.5 moles of ethanol

- Q: What is the molar ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen in glucose (C6H12O6)?

A: 1:2:1

- Q: If a starch solution contains 10 grams of starch in 100 ml of water, what is its weight/volume percentage?

A: 10% (w/v)

- Q: Calculate the reducing power of a sample containing 5 grams of glucose (C6H12O6).

A: 5 grams (All glucose is a reducing sugar.)

- Q: A candy bar contains 20 grams of carbohydrates. What is the energy content in kilojoules (kJ)?

A: 335 kJ

- Q: If lactose (C12H22O11) is made up of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of galactose, how many atoms are in a single lactose molecule?

A: 45 atoms

- Q: What is the molecular formula of sucrose (table sugar)?

A: C12H22O11

- Q: A serving of pasta contains 40 grams of carbohydrates. How many kilocalories does it provide?

A: 160 kcal

- Q: Calculate the total number of atoms in one molecule of fructose (C6H12O6).

A: 24 atoms

- Q: How many moles of water are produced from the complete combustion of 1 mole of glucose (C6H12O6)?

A: 6 moles of water

- Q: If a drink contains 30 grams of sugar (sucrose), what is the total carbohydrate content?

A: 30 grams (Sucrose is a carbohydrate.)

- Q: Calculate the energy yield from the oxidation of 1 mole of galactose (C6H12O6) to carbon dioxide and water.

A: 686 kcal

- Q: If 10 grams of glucose (C6H12O6) are dissolved in 200 ml of water, what is its molarity?

A: 0.556 M

- Q: What is the mass percent of oxygen in lactose (C12H22O11)?

A: 48.17% oxygen

- Q: A

solution contains 0.2 moles of sucrose (C12H22O11) in 500 ml of water. What is its molar concentration?

A: 0.4 M

- Q: If 1 mole of glucose (C6H12O6) undergoes fermentation to ethanol and carbon dioxide, how many moles of ethanol are produced?

A: 2 moles of ethanol

- Q: Calculate the energy content of 50 grams of galactose (C6H12O6) in kilocalories.

A: 193 kcal

- Q: How many reducing sugar units are present in 1 mole of maltose (C12H22O11)?

A: 2 reducing sugar units

- Q: What is the empirical formula of sucrose if it contains 40% carbon, 6.7% hydrogen, and 53.3% oxygen by mass?

A: C12H22O11

- Q: If 100 grams of cellulose (C6H10O5) are fermented, how many moles of ethanol can be produced (C2H5OH)?

A: 2.22 moles of ethanol

- Q: A glucose solution contains 5 moles of glucose in 1 liter of water. What is its molarity?

A: 5 M

- Q: Calculate the energy yield from the complete combustion of 1 mole of sucrose (C12H22O11).

A: 5648 kJ

- Q: If 10 grams of lactose (C12H22O11) are dissolved in 200 ml of water, what is its molality?

A: 0.333 mol/kg

Kindly note that these calculations are based on the provided molecular formulas and constants. Always double-check your calculations and ensure the accuracy of the data used.