A science journal, also known as a scientific journal or scholarly journal, is a periodical publication that focuses on disseminating original research findings, scientific advancements, and scholarly articles in various fields of science. These journals serve as a platform for scientists, researchers, and academics to share their work with the scientific community and the general public.


Science journals typically follow a rigorous peer-review process, where submitted articles are critically evaluated by experts in the respective field before they are accepted for publication. This ensures that the published content meets the standards of quality, accuracy, and scientific validity.


Science journals cover a wide range of disciplines, including physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, earth sciences, environmental sciences, computer science, mathematics, and more. They may include original research articles, review papers, perspectives, editorials, and letters to the editor. The articles published in science journals often contribute to the existing knowledge, present new hypotheses, experimental findings, and provide insights into various scientific phenomena.


Science journals play a crucial role in advancing scientific knowledge, promoting collaboration among researchers, and facilitating the exchange of ideas within the scientific community. They are vital sources of information for scientists, students, educators, and anyone interested in staying updated with the latest scientific research and discoveries.



There are numerous types of scientific journals, each catering to specific disciplines, methodologies, or aspects of scientific research. Here are 10 types of scientific journals:


1. General Science Journals: These journals cover a broad range of scientific disciplines and publish research from multiple fields, such as Nature and Science.


2. Discipline-Specific Journals: These journals focus on specific scientific disciplines, such as physics, chemistry, biology, or astronomy. Examples include Physical Review Letters (physics), Journal of the American Chemical Society (chemistry), and Journal of Experimental Biology (biology).


3. Clinical Journals: These journals publish research related to clinical medicine, patient studies, and medical treatments. Examples include New England Journal of Medicine and The Lancet.


4. Review Journals: Review journals publish comprehensive articles that summarize and critically analyze existing research on a specific topic or field. They provide a synthesis of current knowledge and often help researchers stay updated with the latest advancements in their fields.


5. Methods and Techniques Journals: These journals focus on publishing articles that describe novel experimental techniques, methodologies, and protocols used in scientific research. Examples include Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE) and Methods in Enzymology.


6. Open Access Journals: Open access journals provide free and unrestricted access to their published articles, promoting the widespread dissemination of scientific research. Examples include PLOS ONE and BMC journals.


7. Applied Research Journals: These journals focus on publishing research with direct practical applications in various industries and sectors. Examples include Journal of Applied Physics and Applied and Environmental Microbiology.


8. Computational Science Journals: These journals specialize in publishing research related to computational modeling, simulations, and data analysis in various scientific fields. Examples include Journal of Computational Chemistry and Bioinformatics.


9. Multidisciplinary Journals: These journals publish research that spans multiple disciplines or encourages interdisciplinary collaborations. Examples include Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) and Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.


10. Society Journals: These journals are published by scientific societies and cater to the specific interests of their respective communities. Examples include American Chemical Society (ACS) journals and American Physical Society (APS) journals.


It's important to note that these categories are not mutually exclusive, and many journals may fall into multiple types or have unique focuses within their respective disciplines.



Scientific journals hold significant importance in the realm of scientific research and academic communication. Here are 20 key reasons why scientific journals are important:


1. Dissemination of knowledge: Scientific journals facilitate the dissemination of research findings and knowledge to the scientific community and beyond.


2. Peer review: Journals employ a rigorous peer-review process to ensure the quality and validity of published research, maintaining scientific integrity.


3. Quality assurance: Publishing in reputable journals ensures that the research meets certain standards of scientific rigor, enhancing its credibility.


4. Advancement of knowledge: Journals contribute to the growth and advancement of knowledge by publishing new discoveries, theories, and methodologies.


5. Validation of research: Publication in a scientific journal provides validation and recognition for researchers' work, enhancing their reputation and career prospects.


6. Collaboration and networking: Journals foster collaboration and networking among researchers by connecting experts in similar fields and facilitating communication and idea exchange.


7. Access to research: Journals make scientific research widely accessible, allowing scientists, students, and the public to access and build upon existing knowledge.


8. Citation and impact: Published articles in journals are often cited by other researchers, which helps measure the impact and influence of the research within the scientific community.


9. Archiving of knowledge: Journals serve as a repository of scientific knowledge, archiving research articles for future reference and historical record.


10. Discovering emerging trends: By regularly reading journals, researchers can stay updated on the latest advancements, emerging trends, and breakthroughs in their respective fields.


11. Critical evaluation: Journals encourage critical evaluation and discussion of research findings, promoting scientific discourse and the refinement of scientific knowledge.


12. Guiding future research: Published articles in journals can guide and inspire future research directions, providing a foundation for new studies and investigations.


13. Career advancement: Publishing in reputable journals is often a prerequisite for academic career advancement, securing funding, and gaining recognition in the scientific community.


14. Promoting interdisciplinary research: Journals foster interdisciplinary research by providing a platform for scientists from diverse disciplines to collaborate and publish their findings.


15. Ethical guidelines: Journals adhere to ethical guidelines and publishing standards, promoting responsible conduct in research and discouraging scientific misconduct.


16. Scientific societies and communities: Many scientific journals are associated with professional societies or communities, fostering a sense of belonging and shared interests among researchers.


17. Replication and validation: Journals play a vital role in replication and validation studies, allowing researchers to reproduce and confirm previously published findings.


18. Education and teaching: Journals serve as valuable resources for educators and students, supporting the teaching of scientific concepts and providing examples of research methodologies.


19. Policy-making and decision-making: Policymakers and decision-makers often rely on scientific journals to inform evidence-based policies, regulations, and strategic decisions.


20. Global scientific progress: Journals contribute to the global progress of science by enabling the worldwide sharing of research, transcending geographic boundaries, and promoting international collaboration.


Overall, scientific journals are crucial for advancing knowledge, fostering scientific collaboration, ensuring quality control, and providing a platform for the scientific community to communicate and build upon each other's work.



Here's a list of 50 journals specifically focused on biochemistry:


1. Journal of Biological Chemistry

2. Biochemistry

3. Trends in Biochemical Sciences

4. Annual Review of Biochemistry

5. Biochemical Journal

6. Journal of Molecular Biology

7. Molecular Cell

8. Journal of Proteome Research

9. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (BBRC)

10. Molecular BioSystems

11. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics

12. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics

13. Biochemical Pharmacology

14. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics

15. FEBS Letters

16. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry

17. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education

18. Journal of Biochemistry

19. Biochemistry and Cell Biology

20. BioFactors

21. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism

22. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects

23. Biochimie

24. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics

25. Molecular Biosystems

26. Journal of Biomolecular NMR

27. BMC Biochemistry

28. Molecular Medicine

29. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS)

30. Journal of Structural Biology

31. Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry

32. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry

33. Bioorganic Chemistry

34. Protein Science

35. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Reports

36. ChemBioChem

37. IUBMB Life

38. Protein Engineering, Design and Selection

39. Journal of Biological Chemistry Methods

40. European Journal of Biochemistry

41. Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

42. Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics

43. Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology

44. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

45. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics: Methods in Enzymology

46. Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods

47. Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes

48. Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research

49. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry

50. Biopolymers


Again, please note that this is not an exhaustive list, but it includes many prominent and respected journals in the field of biochemistry.





 The under listed journals do not only publish biochemistry research/articles but other science majors like Chemistry, Physics, Microbiology, Physiology, Medicine, etc.


1. Nature

2. Science

3. Cell

4. Journal of Biological Chemistry

5. Biochemistry

6. Molecular Cell

7. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS)

8. Cell Metabolism

9. Trends in Biochemical Sciences

10. Annual Review of Biochemistry

11. Journal of Molecular Biology

12. ACS Chemical Biology

13. Journal of the American Chemical Society

14. Biochemical Journal

15. Molecular Biology and Evolution

16. Nucleic Acids Research

17. Cell Reports

18. Current Opinion in Structural Biology

19. Journal of Cell Biology

20. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

21. Developmental Cell

22. EMBO Journal

23. PLOS Biology

24. Genes & Development

25. Structure

26. Journal of Virology

27. BMC Bioinformatics

28. Journal of Proteome Research

29. Cell Stem Cell

30. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry

31. Journal of Lipid Research

32. Journal of Molecular Medicine

33. Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry

34. Metabolic Engineering

35. Journal of Chromatography B

36. Biophysical Journal

37. Molecular Plant

38. Bioinformatics

39. Molecular Cancer Research

40. Molecular Microbiology

41. Journal of Biological Engineering

42. The FEBS Journal

43. Chemical Science

44. Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation

45. Analytical Chemistry

46. Glycobiology

47. Proteomics

48. Journal of Structural Biology

49. Frontiers in Microbiology

50. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease


Please note that the list is not exhaustive, and there are many more reputable biochemistry and science journals available. The selection above represents a mix of general science journals and specialized biochemistry-focused journals.



The cost of publication in scientific journals can vary significantly depending on various factors such as:

a. Journal's reputation,

b. Publication model (open access or subscription-based),

c. Article length, color figures, and

d. Additional services offered by the journal.


1. Open Access Journals: Open access journals make articles freely available to readers, but they often charge authors an article processing charge (APC) to cover the costs of publication. APCs can range from a few hundred to several thousand dollars. The exact amount varies widely between journals, disciplines, and publishers. Some prestigious open access journals charge higher fees than others. Prestigious journals may charge as high as $5000US, while some open access Journals charge as low as $10 or $20US.

2. Subscription-Based Journals: Subscription-based journals generally do not charge authors directly for publication. Instead, readers pay for access to the articles through subscriptions or pay-per-view models. However, some subscription-based journals may offer additional services like color figures or supplementary materials that may incur extra charges.


It's important to note that not all scientific journals charge publication fees, especially those that operate on a nonprofit basis or are supported by academic institutions or societies. Additionally, some journals may offer fee waivers or discounts for authors who lack funding or are from low-income countries.


When considering submitting your work to a journal, it's advisable to carefully review the journal's website or contact their editorial office to get accurate and up-to-date information on their publication fees and any other associated charges.


Lastly, it's worth mentioning that some funding agencies and institutions provide grants or funds to cover publication costs. Researchers should explore these opportunities to help offset the expenses of publishing in scientific journals.



There are several important reasons why scientists should consider publishing their research in scientific journals:


1. Dissemination of Knowledge: Publishing in scientific journals allows researchers to share their findings with the scientific community and the wider public. It provides an opportunity to communicate their work, methodologies, and results to other scientists, academics, and professionals in their field. This contributes to the overall advancement of knowledge and understanding in the scientific community.


2. Peer Review and Quality Assurance: Scientific journals typically employ a peer-review process, where experts in the field evaluate the research before publication. This rigorous review helps ensure the quality, validity, and reliability of the research. It provides an external validation of the work and adds credibility to the findings.


3. Establishing Priority and Recognition: Publishing in a scientific journal establishes a record of the research and serves as evidence of priority. It allows researchers to stake their claim on a particular discovery, innovation, or advancement in their field. This recognition is essential for career progression, establishing expertise, and building reputation among peers.


4. Collaboration and Networking: Publication in scientific journals provides opportunities for collaboration and networking. Other researchers who read the published work may be interested in collaborating on related projects, leading to new partnerships and synergies. It helps scientists connect with peers who share similar research interests, leading to fruitful collaborations and further advancement of their work.


5. Career Advancement and Funding Opportunities: Publishing in reputable scientific journals is often considered an important criterion for career advancement in academia and research institutions. It enhances researchers' professional profiles, increases visibility, and may open up opportunities for grants, funding, and research support.


6. Impact and Influence: Publishing in scientific journals allows researchers to contribute to the scientific discourse and shape their field's direction. It enables them to have an impact on future research, policy decisions, and societal understanding of important issues. High-impact publications can have far-reaching effects on their respective disciplines and contribute to scientific progress and innovation.


It's important for scientists to choose appropriate journals that align with the scope and significance of their research. Considering factors such as the target audience, reputation, and impact factor of a journal can help maximize the benefits of publishing in a scientific journal.



How many publications for Ph.D?

How many publications for Senior Lecturer?

How many publications for Full Professor?

The publication requirements for Degree, Masters, and Ph.D academic pursuits are often asked with curiosity. Variation is the key factor here.  


The number of publications required to become a professor in the sciences can vary significantly depending on several factors, including the country, university, discipline, and individual circumstances. There is no fixed number of publications universally applicable to all cases. The requirements for promotion to a professorship typically involve a holistic evaluation of an individual's research accomplishments, teaching experience, leadership, and overall contributions to their field.


In academia, the path to professorship generally involves progression through different ranks, such as assistant professor, associate professor, and then full professor. Each rank usually has specific criteria that need to be met, including research productivity.


While there is no definitive number, aspiring professors in the sciences are generally expected to have a strong publication record that demonstrates their expertise and significant contributions to their field. The quality, impact, and relevance of the publications are often considered more important than the sheer quantity.


In addition to publications, other factors that may be taken into account for professorship promotion include successful grant applications, conference presentations, collaborations, awards and recognition, teaching effectiveness, mentoring of students, and service to the academic community.


It's important to note that different institutions and countries may have different promotion criteria and expectations. Therefore, it is advisable for individuals pursuing a professorship or other level of academic career to consult their institution's specific guidelines and requirements, seek mentorship from senior faculty members, and engage in discussions with colleagues in their field to better understand the expectations and standards for promotion in their specific context.