QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS IN TISSUE BIOCHEMISTRY

 

The following 50 questions and answers will help new students understand the scope of Tissue Biochemistry: 

 

**1. What is tissue biochemistry?**

   - Tissue biochemistry is the branch of biochemistry that studies the chemical processes and molecules within biological tissues.

 

**2. What are the four major types of tissues in the human body?**

   - The four major types of tissues in the human body are epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissues.

 

**3. How does epithelial tissue differ from other tissue types?**

   - Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces, lines cavities, and forms glands, primarily serving as a protective barrier and for absorption, secretion, and sensation.

 

**4. What is the primary role of connective tissue in the body?**

   - Connective tissue provides structural support, connects and binds tissues and organs, and plays a role in immune responses.

 

**5. What are extracellular matrix and fibers in connective tissue composed of?**

   - The extracellular matrix consists of proteins and carbohydrates, while fibers include collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers.

 

**6. What is the primary function of muscle tissue?**

   - Muscle tissue contracts to generate movement and is categorized into skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle.

 

**7. What is the main function of nervous tissue?**

   - Nervous tissue processes and transmits information through electrical signals, enabling sensory perception and control of bodily functions.

 

**8. What distinguishes prokaryotic cells from eukaryotic cells?**

   - Prokaryotic cells lack a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, whereas eukaryotic cells have both a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

 

**9. How does the mitochondria contribute to tissue biochemistry?**

   - Mitochondria generate ATP, the cell's energy currency, through cellular respiration, and they play a central role in metabolism.

 

**10. What is apoptosis, and why is it important in tissue biochemistry?**

    - Apoptosis is programmed cell death, crucial for tissue development, homeostasis, and the elimination of damaged or unwanted cells.

 

**11. What are enzymes, and how do they function in tissue biochemistry?**

    - Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in cells, facilitating metabolic processes and maintaining tissue function.

 

**12. How does DNA contribute to tissue biochemistry?**

    - DNA contains genetic information and serves as a template for RNA synthesis and protein production, influencing tissue development and function.

 

**13. Explain the central dogma of molecular biology.**

    - The central dogma describes the flow of genetic information: DNA is transcribed into RNA, which is translated into proteins.

 

**14. What role does RNA play in tissue biochemistry?**

    - RNA is involved in transcription (copying genetic information) and translation (protein synthesis), essential for tissue growth and repair.

 

**15. What are proteases, and how do they function in tissue biochemistry?**

    - Proteases are enzymes that break down proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids, contributing to protein turnover and regulation.

 

**16. How do hormones impact tissue biochemistry?**

    - Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate various physiological processes and influence tissue growth, metabolism, and responses.

 

**17. Describe the functions of the endoplasmic reticulum in cells.**

    - The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in protein synthesis, folding, and modification, as well as lipid metabolism.

 

**18. Why are antioxidants important in tissue biochemistry?**

    - Antioxidants neutralize harmful free radicals, protecting tissues from oxidative damage and maintaining cellular health.

 

**19. What is the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle), and where does it occur?**

    - The Krebs cycle is a series of reactions in the mitochondria that oxidizes acetyl-CoA, producing ATP and energy-rich molecules.

 

**20. How does the study of tissue biochemistry contribute to our understanding of diseases?**

    - Tissue biochemistry helps uncover the molecular mechanisms of diseases, aiding in diagnosis and the development of targeted therapies.

 

**21. What are the key components of a cell membrane?**

    - The cell membrane consists of phospholipid bilayers, proteins, cholesterol, and carbohydrates, forming a selectively permeable barrier.

 

**22. How do cells communicate with each other in tissues?**

    - Cells communicate through various mechanisms, including direct contact, chemical signaling (hormones), and gap junctions for electrical communication.

 

**23. What are the major types of membrane transport mechanisms?**

    - Membrane transport mechanisms include passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, and endocytosis/exocytosis.

 

**24. How does passive diffusion work in cell membranes?**

    - Passive diffusion relies on the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration, without energy input.

 

**25. What are ion channels, and how do they function in cell membranes?**

    - Ion channels are protein channels in the cell membrane that allow specific ions to pass through, regulating ion concentration and cell excitability.

 

**26. What is osmosis, and how does it affect cell membranes?**

    - Osmosis is the passive movement of water across a semipermeable membrane to equalize solute concentrations, potentially causing cell swelling or shrinking.

 

**27. What is the role of the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+ pump) in cell membranes?**

    - The Na+/K+ pump maintains ion gradients by actively transporting sodium ions out and potassium ions into the cell, crucial for cell function.

 

**28. How does endocytosis differ from exocytosis in cell membranes?**

    - Endocytosis is the process of engulfing particles or molecules into the cell, while exocytosis expels substances from the cell via vesicles.

 

**29. What is the role of ribosomes in protein synthesis?**

    - Ribosomes are cellular structures responsible for protein synthesis by translating mRNA into amino acid sequences.

 

**30. What are the two subunits of a ribosome, and where are they located?**

    - Ribosomes consist of small and large subunits, and they can be found in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).

 

**31. What is the function of tRNA (transfer RNA) in protein synthesis?**

    - tRNA carries amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis, matching the anticodon on the tRNA to the codon on the mRNA.

 

**32. How does protein folding occur, and why is it important in tissue biochemistry?**

    - Protein folding is the process by which a polypeptide chain assumes its functional three-dimensional shape, essential for protein function.

 

**33. What is the role of chaperone proteins in protein folding?**

    - Chaperone proteins assist in proper protein folding by preventing misfolding or aiding in refolding when necessary.

 

**34. How do post-translational modifications affect protein function?**

    - Post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation or glycosylation, can alter a protein's structure and function.

 

**35. What are the primary functions of carbohydrates in tissues?**

    - Carbohydrates serve as an energy source, structural components (e.g., cell walls), and play roles in cell recognition and signaling.

 

**36. How are carbohydrates stored in animal tissues?

 

**

    - Carbohydrates are stored as glycogen in the liver and muscle tissues, serving as an energy reserve.

 

**37. What are the key functions of lipids in tissues?**

    - Lipids are involved in energy storage, membrane structure, insulation, and signaling in tissues.

 

**38. What is the role of triglycerides in lipid metabolism?**

    - Triglycerides store energy in adipose tissue and can be broken down to release fatty acids for energy production.

 

**39. How do lipid bilayers in cell membranes contribute to their function?**

    - Lipid bilayers create a selectively permeable barrier in cell membranes, regulating the passage of molecules and ions.

 

**40. What is the role of cholesterol in cell membranes?**

    - Cholesterol stabilizes cell membranes by modulating their fluidity and rigidity, ensuring proper membrane function.

 

**41. How do steroids function in tissues, and what are some examples of steroid hormones?**

    - Steroids, including hormones like cortisol and testosterone, regulate various physiological processes, such as metabolism and development.

 

**42. What is the role of nucleic acids in tissues, and what are the two main types?**

    - Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) store and transmit genetic information, influencing tissue development and function.

 

**43. What is the difference between ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)?**

    - RNA has ribose sugar, single-stranded structure, and uracil (U) instead of thymine (T), whereas DNA has deoxyribose sugar, a double-stranded helical structure, and thymine (T).

 

**44. How does DNA replication occur, and why is it essential in tissues?**

    - DNA replication is the process of making an identical copy of DNA, crucial for cell division, growth, and tissue repair.

 

**45. What is the role of mRNA (messenger RNA) in protein synthesis?**

    - mRNA carries the genetic code from DNA to ribosomes, serving as a template for protein synthesis.

 

**46. What is the function of rRNA (ribosomal RNA) in protein synthesis?**

    - rRNA is a structural component of ribosomes that facilitates protein synthesis by catalyzing peptide bond formation.

 

**47. How does microRNA (miRNA) participate in tissue regulation?**

    - miRNA regulates gene expression by binding to mRNA and inhibiting its translation, impacting tissue development and function.

 

**48. What is gene transcription, and how does it relate to tissue biochemistry?**

    - Gene transcription is the process of copying DNA into mRNA, providing the genetic information necessary for protein synthesis and tissue function.

 

**49. How does epigenetics influence tissue biochemistry and gene expression?**

    - Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation, can alter gene expression and impact tissue development and function.

 

**50. What is the significance of RNA interference (RNAi) in tissue biochemistry?**

    - RNAi is a mechanism that regulates gene expression by degrading specific mRNA molecules, playing a role in tissue development and homeostasis.

 

These questions and answers cover various aspects of tissue biochemistry, including cell biology, molecular processes, and their relevance to tissue development, function, and health.

 

 

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