1. Q: What are nucleic acids?

A: Nucleic acids are complex biomolecules that store and transmit genetic information in living organisms. They include DNA and RNA.


2. Q: What does DNA stand for?

A: DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid.


3. Q: What is the primary function of DNA?

A: The primary function of DNA is to store and transmit genetic information, which determines the characteristics and traits of an organism.


4. Q: What is the structure of DNA?

A: DNA has a double helix structure, resembling a twisted ladder, with nucleotide base pairs forming the rungs and sugar-phosphate backbones forming the sides.


5. Q: What are the four nitrogenous bases in DNA?

A: Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Cytosine (C), and Guanine (G).


6. Q: How are the nitrogenous bases paired in DNA?

A: Adenine (A) always pairs with Thymine (T), and Cytosine (C) always pairs with Guanine (G) through hydrogen bonds.


7. Q: What is the complementary DNA strand for the sequence: 5'-ATCGGTA-3'?

A: 3'-TAGCCAT-5'.


8. Q: What are the two types of nucleic acids found in cells?

A: DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) and RNA (Ribonucleic Acid).


9. Q: What does RNA stand for?

A: RNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid.


10. Q: How does RNA differ from DNA?

A: RNA differs from DNA in several ways, including the presence of ribose sugar instead of deoxyribose, the replacement of thymine with uracil, and typically being single-stranded.


11. Q: What are the three types of RNA?

A: Messenger RNA (mRNA), Transfer RNA (tRNA), and Ribosomal RNA (rRNA).


12. Q: What is the function of mRNA?

A: mRNA carries the genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes, where it is translated into proteins during protein synthesis.


13. Q: What is the function of tRNA?

A: tRNA brings amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis, matching the codons on mRNA with the appropriate amino acids.


14. Q: What is the function of rRNA?

A: rRNA is a structural component of ribosomes, playing a crucial role in protein synthesis.


15. Q: What is the process by which DNA is copied into mRNA called?

A: Transcription.


16. Q: Where does transcription occur in eukaryotic cells?

A: Transcription occurs in the cell nucleus.


17. Q: What is the process by which mRNA is translated into a protein called?

A: Translation.


18. Q: Where does translation occur in eukaryotic cells?

A: Translation occurs in the ribosomes, either in the cytoplasm or on the endoplasmic reticulum.


19. Q: What is a codon?

A: A codon is a sequence of three nucleotides on mRNA that codes for a specific amino acid during protein synthesis.


20. Q: How many different codons are there?

A: There are 64 possible codons, including those that code for amino acids and the stop codons.


21. Q: What is the start codon that initiates protein synthesis?

A: The start codon is AUG (codes for Methionine).


22. Q: How many stop codons are there, and what are they?

A: There are three stop codons: UAA, UAG, and UGA.


23. Q: What happens during the process of DNA replication?

A: DNA replication is the process of making an identical copy of a DNA molecule. The two strands of DNA separate, and each serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand.


24. Q: What is the enzyme responsible for DNA replication?

A: DNA polymerase.


25. Q: What is the role of DNA helicase during DNA replication?

A: DNA helicase unwinds and separates the two strands of the DNA double helix.


26. Q: What is the function of DNA ligase during DNA replication?

A: DNA ligase seals the gaps between the Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand during replication.


27. Q: What is a mutation in the context of nucleic acids?

A: A mutation is a change in the sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA, which can alter the genetic information and potentially lead to changes in an organism's traits.


28. Q: What are the two types of mutations, and how do they differ?

A: The two types of mutations are point mutations, which involve the substitution of a single nucleotide, and frameshift mutations, which result from the insertion or deletion of one or more nucleotides, causing a shift in the reading frame.


29. Q: What are some factors that can cause mutations in DNA?

A: Mutations can be caused by exposure to radiation, certain chemicals, replication errors, or environmental factors.


30. Q: What is the genetic code?

A: The genetic code is the set of rules that govern the translation of mRNA codons into amino acids during protein synthesis.


31. Q: Can a single codon code for more than one amino acid?

A: No, each codon codes for a specific amino acid or serves as a start or stop signal during protein synthesis.


32. Q: How is the genetic code read during translation?

A: The genetic code is read three nucleotides at a time (codon by codon), and each codon is matched with its corresponding amino acid or translation signal.


33. Q: What are some examples of genetic disorders caused by mutations in nucleic acids?

A: Examples include cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and Huntington's disease.


34. Q: What is the central dogma of molecular biology?

A: The central dogma states that genetic information flows from DNA to RNA to proteins, with DNA being transcribed into RNA and RNA being translated into proteins.


35. Q: What are some therapeutic applications of nucleic acids in medicine?

A: Therapeutic applications include gene therapy, RNA interference (RNAi), and the development of RNA-based vaccines.


36. Q: What is RNA interference (RNAi)?

A: RNA interference is a process where small RNA molecules inhibit gene expression by targeting specific mRNA molecules for degradation or by blocking translation.


37. Q: What is the role of microRNA (miRNA) in RNA interference?

A: miRNAs are small RNA molecules that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by targeting specific mRNA sequences for degradation or translational inhibition.


38. Q: How does RNAi contribute to the development of therapeutics?

A: RNAi can be harnessed as a tool to silence specific genes associated with diseases, offering potential treatments for genetic disorders and certain viral infections.


39. Q: What is a plasmid in the context of nucleic acids?

A: A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule found in bacteria and used in genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology.


40. Q: What is recombin


ant DNA technology?

A: Recombinant DNA technology involves the manipulation of DNA from different sources to create novel genetic combinations, often used in biotechnology and genetic engineering.


41. Q: What is polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?

A: PCR is a technique used to amplify specific DNA sequences through cycles of denaturation, annealing, and extension, allowing the creation of multiple copies of a target DNA region.


42. Q: How has the discovery of nucleic acids impacted the understanding of evolution and biodiversity?

A: Nucleic acids provide crucial information about the genetic relatedness and evolutionary history of organisms, contributing significantly to the study of biodiversity and evolutionary relationships.


43. Q: Can nucleic acids be found in viruses?

A: Yes, nucleic acids are essential components of viruses, either as DNA or RNA, carrying the viral genetic information.


44. Q: How do RNA viruses differ from DNA viruses in terms of their genetic material?

A: RNA viruses have RNA as their genetic material, while DNA viruses have DNA.


45. Q: How does the structure of RNA differ from DNA?

A: RNA typically has a single-stranded structure, while DNA has a double-stranded structure.


46. Q: What is the role of telomeres in nucleic acids?

A: Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences located at the ends of linear chromosomes. They protect the chromosomes from degradation and fusion and play a role in cellular aging and cancer.


47. Q: What is the nucleotide composition of RNA?

A: RNA is composed of ribonucleotides, which consist of a ribose sugar, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogenous bases (adenine, uracil, cytosine, or guanine).


48. Q: What is the role of RNA in protein synthesis?

A: RNA plays a central role in protein synthesis by serving as an intermediary between DNA (in the nucleus) and ribosomes (in the cytoplasm), where proteins are synthesized.


49. Q: Can nucleic acids be artificially synthesized in the laboratory?

A: Yes, nucleic acids can be chemically synthesized in the laboratory, allowing scientists to create custom DNA and RNA sequences for research and biotechnological purposes.


50. Q: How has the study of nucleic acids revolutionized various scientific fields and industries?

A: The study of nucleic acids has revolutionized genetics, biotechnology, medicine, agriculture, and forensic science, leading to numerous breakthroughs and advancements in these fields.


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