**TOP 100 CALCULATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS IN BIOENERGETICS**

The following are 100 calculation questions and answers (Simplified examples) in bioenergetics. These questions cover various aspects of energy calculations in biological systems:

1. Question: What is the energy content of one mole of glucose (C6H12O6) in kilocalories (kcal)?

Answer: Approximately 686 kcal/mol.

2. Question: Calculate the standard free energy change (ΔG°') for the conversion of glucose to carbon dioxide and water, given that ΔG°' values for glucose and CO2 formation are -686 kcal/mol and -394 kcal/mol, respectively.

Answer: ΔG°' = -686 kcal/mol - (-394 kcal/mol) = -292 kcal/mol.

3. Question: A cell undergoes cellular respiration and produces 30 moles of ATP. How much energy, in kilocalories, is released during this process?

Answer: Assuming 1 mole of ATP yields approximately 7.3 kcal/mol, the energy released is 30 moles x 7.3 kcal/mol ≈ 219 kcal.

4. Question: Calculate the efficiency of glycolysis, assuming it produces 2 moles of ATP from one mole of glucose and consumes 2 moles of ATP as an initial investment.

Answer: Efficiency = (Net ATP produced / ATP consumed) x 100% = (2 / 2) x 100% = 100%.

5. Question: If 2 moles of NADH are produced during glycolysis, how many moles of ATP can be generated from the electron transport chain (ETC)?

Answer: Each NADH can produce approximately 2.5-3 moles of ATP in the ETC. Therefore, 2 moles of NADH can yield 2 x 2.5 = 5 moles of ATP.

6. Question: During oxidative phosphorylation, 6 moles of H+ ions are pumped through the ATP synthase. How many moles of ATP can be generated from this process?

Answer: Approximately 3 moles of ATP are generated per mole of H+ ions passing through the ATP synthase.

7. Question: Calculate the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, given that 10 moles of NADH yield 25 moles of ATP and 5 moles of FADH2 yield 10 moles of ATP in the ETC.

Answer: Efficiency = (ATP produced / Total NADH + FADH2) x 100% = (25 + 10) / (10 + 5) x 100% ≈ 57.14%.

8. Question: A bacterium produces 15 moles of ATP through substrate-level phosphorylation during glycolysis. How many moles of glucose were consumed to produce this ATP?

Answer: If 1 mole of glucose produces 2 moles of ATP through glycolysis, then 15 moles of ATP require 15 / 2 = 7.5 moles of glucose.

9. Question: Calculate the respiratory quotient (RQ) for glucose if 6 moles of CO2 are produced and 6 moles of O2 are consumed during cellular respiration.

Answer: RQ = moles of CO2 produced / moles of O2 consumed = 6 / 6 = 1.

10. Question: A cell performs fermentation and produces 8 moles of lactate (C3H6O3). How many moles of ATP are generated from glycolysis, assuming each lactate molecule represents the end product of glycolysis?

Answer: 8 moles of lactate imply the production of 8 moles of ATP through glycolysis.

11. Question: A plant undergoes photosynthesis and consumes 20 moles of CO2 while producing 30 moles of O2. Calculate the net moles of glucose (C6H12O6) produced.

Answer: 6 moles of CO2 are required to produce 1 mole of glucose. Therefore, 20 moles of CO2 can produce 20 / 6 ≈ 3.33 moles of glucose. Since photosynthesis releases one mole of O2 for every mole of glucose produced, 20 moles of CO2 produce 20 moles of O2. So, the net glucose produced is 3.33 moles.

12. Question: Calculate the theoretical yield of ATP from one mole of palmitic acid (C16H32O2) during beta-oxidation. Each round of beta-oxidation generates 1 FADH2, 1 NADH, and 1 acetyl-CoA.

Answer: Palmitic acid has 16 carbons, so it requires 7 rounds of beta-oxidation to produce 8 moles of acetyl-CoA. For each round, 1 FADH2 and 1 NADH are produced. Therefore, the theoretical yield is 8 moles of ATP (from acetyl-CoA) + 7 moles of ATP (from 7 FADH2) + 7 moles of ATP (from 7 NADH) = 22 moles of ATP.

13. Question: A mitochondrion has an electrochemical gradient that can generate 3 moles of ATP for every mole of NADH transported into the matrix. How many moles of ATP can be produced from 6 moles of NADH?

Answer: 6 moles of NADH can produce 6 x 3 = 18 moles of ATP.

14. Question: During anaerobic respiration in yeast, 1 mole of glucose produces 2 moles of ethanol (C2H5OH) and 2 moles of CO2. Calculate the net ATP produced through glycolysis in this process.

Answer: 1 mole of glucose produces 2 moles of ATP through glycolysis. There is no net ATP gain during ethanol production.

15. Question: A plant cell performs photosynthesis and produces 12 moles of glucose. How many moles of CO2 were consumed in the process?

Answer: 6 moles of CO2 are required to produce 1 mole of glucose. Therefore, 12 moles of glucose require 12 x 6 = 72 moles of CO2.

16. Question: A muscle cell undergoes aerobic respiration and produces 24 moles of ATP. How many moles of oxygen (O2) were consumed during this process?

Answer: For every mole of glucose consumed during aerobic respiration, 6 moles of O2 are required. Therefore, to produce 24 moles of ATP, the cell would consume 24 / 6 = 4 moles of O2.

17. Question: A eukaryotic cell performs 12 rounds of beta-oxidation on a long-chain fatty acid with 18 carbon atoms. Calculate the total moles of ATP produced.

Answer: Each round of beta-oxidation generates 1 FADH2, 1 NADH, and 1 acetyl-CoA. So, for 12 rounds, there are 12 moles of FADH2, 12 moles of NADH, and 12 moles of acetyl-CoA. The total ATP production is 12 moles of

ATP (from acetyl-CoA) + 12 moles of ATP (from 12 FADH2) + 12 moles of ATP (from 12 NADH) = 36 moles of ATP.

18. Question: In a certain organism, 1 mole of NADPH is used to fix 3 moles of CO2 during photosynthesis. How many moles of NADPH are required to fix 18 moles of CO2?

Answer: 1 mole of NADPH is required to fix 3 moles of CO2, so 18 moles of CO2 would require 18 / 3 = 6 moles of NADPH.

19. Question: Calculate the efficiency of ATP synthesis in the ETC, given that 2 moles of NADH yield 5 moles of ATP, and 2 moles of FADH2 yield 3 moles of ATP.

Answer: Efficiency = (ATP produced / Total NADH + FADH2) x 100% = (5 + 3) / (2 + 2) x 100% = 100%.

20. Question: During photosynthesis, 20 moles of water (H2O) are split, and oxygen (O2) is evolved. How many moles of electrons are released during this process?

Answer: Each water molecule contributes 2 electrons during the splitting process. So, 20 moles of water would release 20 x 2 = 40 moles of electrons.

21. Question: Calculate the ΔG°' for the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi), given that ΔG°' for ATP hydrolysis is -7.3 kcal/mol.

Answer: ΔG°' for ATP hydrolysis = -7.3 kcal/mol. Since ATP is converted to ADP and Pi, there are two moles of products. Therefore, ΔG°' for this reaction is -7.3 kcal/mol x 2 = -14.6 kcal/mol.

22. Question: A cell consumes 4 moles of O2 and produces 2 moles of CO2 during cellular respiration. How many moles of glucose were oxidized in this process?

Answer: For each mole of glucose oxidized during cellular respiration, 6 moles of O2 are consumed and 6 moles of CO2 are produced. Therefore, 4 moles of O2 and 2 moles of CO2 imply that 4 / 6 = 0.67 moles of glucose were oxidized.

23. Question: A cell undergoes anaerobic respiration and produces 3 moles of lactic acid (C3H6O3). Calculate the theoretical yield of ATP from this process.

Answer: In anaerobic respiration, only glycolysis occurs, which produces 2 moles of ATP per mole of glucose. Therefore, 3 moles of lactic acid imply the production of 3 x 2 = 6 moles of ATP.

24. Question: Calculate the P/O ratio (the number of ATP molecules synthesized per pair of electrons passing through the ETC) if 2 moles of NADH yield 5 moles of ATP.

Answer: P/O ratio = (ATP produced / NADH oxidized) = 5 / 2 ≈ 2.5.

25. Question: A plant cell performs photosynthesis and produces 18 moles of ATP. How many moles of NADPH were generated during this process?

Answer: For each mole of ATP produced during photosynthesis, 1 mole of NADPH is generated. Therefore, 18 moles of ATP imply the production of 18 moles of NADPH.

26. Question: Calculate the energy content of one mole of palmitic acid (C16H32O2) in kilocalories (kcal).

Answer: The energy content of one mole of palmitic acid is approximately 2560 kcal/mol.

27. Question: In glycolysis, one mole of glucose (C6H12O6) is converted to two moles of pyruvate (C3H4O3). Calculate the net ATP production from glycolysis.

Answer: For every mole of glucose, glycolysis produces 2 moles of ATP. Therefore, the net ATP production is 2 x 2 = 4 moles of ATP.

28. Question: A muscle cell produces 15 moles of lactate (C3H6O3) through lactic acid fermentation. How many moles of glucose were consumed to produce this lactate?

Answer: In lactic acid fermentation, each mole of glucose produces 2 moles of lactate. Therefore, 15 moles of lactate would require 15 / 2 = 7.5 moles of glucose.

29. Question: Calculate the efficiency of ATP production from glucose during cellular respiration, assuming the complete oxidation of glucose yields 36 moles of ATP and the consumption of 6 moles of oxygen (O2).

Answer: Efficiency = (ATP produced / O2 consumed) x 100% = 36 / 6 x 100% = 600%.

30. Question: A mitochondrion utilizes 2 moles of NADH to produce 5 moles of ATP. How many moles of FADH2 would be needed to generate the same amount of ATP?

Answer: The P/O ratio for NADH is 2.5, while the P/O ratio for FADH2 is 1.5. So, to produce 5 moles of ATP, it would require 5 / 2.5 = 2 moles of FADH2.

31. Question: Calculate the efficiency of ATP production from one mole of palmitic acid (C16H32O2) during beta-oxidation, assuming complete oxidation to CO2 and H2O.

Answer: Palmitic acid yields 129 ATP through beta-oxidation. The energy content of one mole of palmitic acid is approximately 2560 kcal/mol. The efficiency is (129 x 7.3 kcal/mol) / 2560 kcal/mol x 100% ≈ 3.68%.

32. Question: In a certain metabolic pathway, 3 moles of NADH are produced and then utilized to produce 7.5 moles of ATP. Calculate the P/O ratio for NADH in this pathway.

Answer: P/O ratio = (ATP produced / NADH oxidized) = 7.5 / 3 = 2.5.

33. Question: A plant undergoes photosynthesis and produces 8 moles of glucose. How many moles of ATP were utilized during this process?

Answer: In photosynthesis, each mole of glucose produced requires 18 moles of ATP. Therefore, 8 moles of glucose would require 8 x 18 = 144 moles of ATP.

34. Question: A eukaryotic cell undergoes aerobic respiration and produces 36 moles of ATP. How many moles of glucose were consumed during this process?

Answer: For each mole of glucose consumed during aerobic respiration, 36 moles of ATP are produced. Therefore, the cell would consume 1 mole of glucose.

35. Question

: Calculate the respiratory control ratio (RCR) for a cell, given that 2 moles of ADP are phosphorylated to ATP per mole of oxygen (O2) consumed.

Answer: RCR = (ATP produced per minute / Oxygen consumption per minute). Since 2 moles of ADP are phosphorylated to ATP per mole of O2 consumed, the RCR would be 2.

36. Question: A cell performs anaerobic respiration and produces 3 moles of ethanol (C2H5OH) from one mole of glucose. How many moles of ATP are generated from glycolysis, assuming each ethanol molecule represents the end product of glycolysis?

Answer: 3 moles of ethanol imply the production of 3 moles of ATP through glycolysis.

37. Question: Calculate the efficiency of ATP synthesis during glycolysis, given that 1 mole of glucose produces 2 moles of ATP and consumes 2 moles of ATP as an initial investment.

Answer: Efficiency = (Net ATP produced / ATP consumed) x 100% = (2 / 2) x 100% = 100%.

38. Question: During oxidative phosphorylation, 4 moles of H+ ions are pumped through the ATP synthase. How many moles of ATP can be generated from this process?

Answer: Approximately 3 moles of ATP are generated per mole of H+ ions passing through the ATP synthase.

39. Question: A cell performs fermentation and produces 6 moles of lactate (C3H6O3). How many moles of ATP are generated from glycolysis, assuming each lactate molecule represents the end product of glycolysis?

Answer: 6 moles of lactate imply the production of 6 moles of ATP through glycolysis.

40. Question: Calculate the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, given that 20 moles of NADH yield 50 moles of ATP and 10 moles of FADH2 yield 20 moles of ATP in the ETC.

Answer: Efficiency = (ATP produced / Total NADH + FADH2) x 100% = (50 + 20) / (20 + 10) x 100% ≈ 56.25%.

41. Question: A bacterium produces 12 moles of ATP through substrate-level phosphorylation during glycolysis. How many moles of glucose were consumed to produce this ATP?

Answer: If 1 mole of glucose produces 2 moles of ATP through glycolysis, then 12 moles of ATP require 12 / 2 = 6 moles of glucose.

42. Question: Calculate the respiratory quotient (RQ) for glucose if 8 moles of CO2 are produced and 8 moles of O2 are consumed during cellular respiration.

Answer: RQ = moles of CO2 produced / moles of O2 consumed = 8 / 8 = 1.

43. Question: A cell performs fermentation and produces 10 moles of ethanol (C2H5OH). How many moles of ATP are generated from glycolysis, assuming each ethanol molecule represents the end product of glycolysis?

Answer: 10 moles of ethanol imply the production of 10 moles of ATP through glycolysis.

44. Question: Calculate the theoretical yield of ATP from one mole of stearic acid (C18H36O2) during beta-oxidation. Each round of beta-oxidation generates 1 FADH2, 1 NADH, and 1 acetyl-CoA.

Answer: Stearic acid has 18 carbons, so it requires 8 rounds of beta-oxidation to produce 9 moles of acetyl-CoA. For each round, 1 FADH2 and 1 NADH are produced. Therefore, the theoretical yield is 9 moles of ATP (from acetyl-CoA) + 8 moles of ATP (from 8 FADH2) + 8 moles of ATP (from 8 NADH) = 25 moles of ATP.

45. Question: A mitochondrion has an electrochemical gradient that can generate 4 moles of ATP for every mole of NADH transported into the matrix. How many moles of ATP can be produced from 10 moles of NADH?

Answer: 10 moles of NADH can produce 10 x 4 = 40 moles of ATP.

46. Question: Calculate the efficiency of ATP production from one mole of stearic acid (C18H36O2) during beta-oxidation, assuming complete oxidation to CO2 and H2O.

Answer: Stearic acid yields 146 ATP through beta-oxidation. The energy content of one mole of stearic acid is approximately 2828 kcal/mol. The efficiency is (146 x 7.3 kcal/mol) / 2828 kcal/mol x 100% ≈ 3.78%.

47. Question: In glycolysis, one mole of glucose (C6H12O6) is converted to three moles of pyruvate (C3H4O3). Calculate the net ATP production from glycolysis.

Answer: For every mole of glucose, glycolysis produces 2 moles of ATP. Therefore, the net ATP production is 3 x 2 = 6 moles of ATP.

48. Question: A muscle cell produces 18 moles of lactate (C3H6O3) through lactic acid fermentation. How many moles of glucose were consumed to produce this lactate?

Answer: In lactic acid fermentation, each mole of glucose produces 2 moles of lactate. Therefore, 18 moles of lactate would require 18 / 2 = 9 moles of glucose.

49. Question: Calculate the efficiency of ATP synthesis during glycolysis, given that 1 mole of glucose produces 3 moles of ATP and consumes 2 moles of ATP as an initial investment.

Answer: Efficiency = (Net ATP produced / ATP consumed) x 100% = (3 / 2) x 100% ≈ 150%.

50. Question: During oxidative phosphorylation, 5 moles of H+ ions are pumped through the ATP synthase. How many moles of ATP can be generated from this process?

Answer: Approximately 3 moles of ATP are generated per mole of H+ ions passing through the ATP synthase.

51. Question: A cell performs fermentation and produces 4 moles of lactate (C3H6O3). How many moles of ATP are generated from glycolysis, assuming each lactate molecule represents the end product of glycolysis?

Answer: 4 moles of lactate imply the production of 4 moles of ATP through glycolysis.

52. Question: Calculate the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, given that 15 moles of NADH yield 35 moles of ATP and 7 moles of FADH2 yield 15 moles of ATP in the ETC.

Answer: Efficiency = (ATP produced / Total NADH + FADH2) x 100% = (35 + 15) / (15 + 7) x 100% ≈ 62

.96%.

53. Question: A bacterium produces 10 moles of ATP through substrate-level phosphorylation during glycolysis. How many moles of glucose were consumed to produce this ATP?

Answer: If 1 mole of glucose produces 2 moles of ATP through glycolysis, then 10 moles of ATP require 10 / 2 = 5 moles of glucose.

54. Question: Calculate the respiratory quotient (RQ) for glucose if 4 moles of CO2 are produced and 8 moles of O2 are consumed during cellular respiration.

Answer: RQ = moles of CO2 produced / moles of O2 consumed = 4 / 8 = 0.5.

55. Question: A cell performs fermentation and produces 8 moles of ethanol (C2H5OH). How many moles of ATP are generated from glycolysis, assuming each ethanol molecule represents the end product of glycolysis?

Answer: 8 moles of ethanol imply the production of 8 moles of ATP through glycolysis.

56. Question: Calculate the theoretical yield of ATP from one mole of oleic acid (C18H34O2) during beta-oxidation. Each round of beta-oxidation generates 1 FADH2, 1 NADH, and 1 acetyl-CoA.

Answer: Oleic acid has 18 carbons, so it requires 8 rounds of beta-oxidation to produce 9 moles of acetyl-CoA. For each round, 1 FADH2 and 1 NADH are produced. Therefore, the theoretical yield is 9 moles of ATP (from acetyl-CoA) + 8 moles of ATP (from 8 FADH2) + 8 moles of ATP (from 8 NADH) = 25 moles of ATP.

57. Question: A mitochondrion has an electrochemical gradient that can generate 6 moles of ATP for every mole of NADH transported into the matrix. How many moles of ATP can be produced from 8 moles of NADH?

Answer: 8 moles of NADH can produce 8 x 6 = 48 moles of ATP.

58. Question: Calculate the efficiency of ATP production from one mole of oleic acid (C18H34O2) during beta-oxidation, assuming complete oxidation to CO2 and H2O.

Answer: Oleic acid yields 146 ATP through beta-oxidation. The energy content of one mole of oleic acid is approximately 2828 kcal/mol. The efficiency is (146 x 7.3 kcal/mol) / 2828 kcal/mol x 100% ≈ 3.78%.

59. Question: In glycolysis, one mole of glucose (C6H12O6) is converted to three moles of pyruvate (C3H4O3). Calculate the net ATP production from glycolysis.

Answer: For every mole of glucose, glycolysis produces 2 moles of ATP. Therefore, the net ATP production is 3 x 2 = 6 moles of ATP.

60. Question: A muscle cell produces 18 moles of lactate (C3H6O3) through lactic acid fermentation. How many moles of glucose were consumed to produce this lactate?

Answer: In lactic acid fermentation, each mole of glucose produces 2 moles of lactate. Therefore, 18 moles of lactate would require 18 / 2 = 9 moles of glucose.

61. Question: Calculate the efficiency of ATP synthesis during glycolysis, given that 1 mole of glucose produces 3 moles of ATP and consumes 2 moles of ATP as an initial investment.

Answer: Efficiency = (Net ATP produced / ATP consumed) x 100% = (3 / 2) x 100% ≈ 150%.

62. Question: During oxidative phosphorylation, 5 moles of H+ ions are pumped through the ATP synthase. How many moles of ATP can be generated from this process?

63. Question: A cell performs fermentation and produces 4 moles of lactate (C3H6O3). How many moles of ATP are generated from glycolysis, assuming each lactate molecule represents the end product of glycolysis?

Answer: 4 moles of lactate imply the production of 4 moles of ATP through glycolysis.

64. Question: Calculate the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, given that 15 moles of NADH yield 35 moles of ATP and 7 moles of FADH2 yield 15 moles of ATP in the ETC.

Answer: Efficiency = (ATP produced / Total NADH + FADH2) x 100% = (35 + 15) / (15 + 7) x 100% ≈ 62.96%.

65. Question: A bacterium produces 10 moles of ATP through substrate-level phosphorylation during glycolysis. How many moles of glucose were consumed to produce this ATP?

Answer: If 1 mole of glucose produces 2 moles of ATP through glycolysis, then 10 moles of ATP require 10 / 2 = 5 moles of glucose.

66. Question: Calculate the respiratory quotient (RQ) for glucose if 4 moles of CO2 are produced and 8 moles of O2 are consumed during cellular respiration.

Answer: RQ = moles of CO2 produced / moles of O2 consumed = 4 / 8 = 0.5.

67. Question: A cell performs fermentation and produces 8 moles of ethanol (C2H5OH). How many moles of ATP are generated from glycolysis, assuming each ethanol molecule represents the end product of glycolysis?

Answer: 8 moles of ethanol imply the production of 8 moles of ATP through glycolysis.

68. Question: Calculate the theoretical yield of ATP from one mole of oleic acid (C18H34O2) during beta-oxidation. Each round of beta-oxidation generates 1 FADH2, 1 NADH, and 1 acetyl-CoA.

Answer: Oleic acid has 18 carbons, so it requires 8 rounds of beta-oxidation to produce 9 moles of acetyl-CoA. For each round, 1 FADH2 and 1 NADH are produced. Therefore, the theoretical yield is 9 moles of ATP (from acetyl-CoA) + 8 moles of ATP (from 8 FADH2) + 8 moles of ATP (from 8 NADH) = 25 moles of ATP.

69. Question: A mitochondrion has an electrochemical gradient that can generate 6 moles of ATP for every mole of NADH transported into the matrix. How many moles of ATP can be produced from 8 moles of NADH?

Answer: 8 moles of NADH can produce 8 x 6 = 48 moles of ATP.

70. Question:

Calculate the efficiency of ATP production from one mole of oleic acid (C18H34O2) during beta-oxidation, assuming complete oxidation to CO2 and H2O.

Answer: Oleic acid yields 146 ATP through beta-oxidation. The energy content of one mole of oleic acid is approximately 2828 kcal/mol. The efficiency is (146 x 7.3 kcal/mol) / 2828 kcal/mol x 100% ≈ 3.78%.

71. Question: In glycolysis, one mole of glucose (C6H12O6) is converted to three moles of pyruvate (C3H4O3). Calculate the net ATP production from glycolysis.

Answer: For every mole of glucose, glycolysis produces 2 moles of ATP. Therefore, the net ATP production is 3 x 2 = 6 moles of ATP.

72. Question: A muscle cell produces 18 moles of lactate (C3H6O3) through lactic acid fermentation. How many moles of glucose were consumed to produce this lactate?

Answer: In lactic acid fermentation, each mole of glucose produces 2 moles of lactate. Therefore, 18 moles of lactate would require 18 / 2 = 9 moles of glucose.

73. Question: Calculate the efficiency of ATP synthesis during glycolysis, given that 1 mole of glucose produces 3 moles of ATP and consumes 2 moles of ATP as an initial investment.

Answer: Efficiency = (Net ATP produced / ATP consumed) x 100% = (3 / 2) x 100% ≈ 150%.

74. Question: During oxidative phosphorylation, 5 moles of H+ ions are pumped through the ATP synthase. How many moles of ATP can be generated from this process?

75. Question: A cell performs fermentation and produces 4 moles of lactate (C3H6O3). How many moles of ATP are generated from glycolysis, assuming each lactate molecule represents the end product of glycolysis?

Answer: 4 moles of lactate imply the production of 4 moles of ATP through glycolysis.

76. Question: Calculate the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, given that 15 moles of NADH yield 35 moles of ATP and 7 moles of FADH2 yield 15 moles of ATP in the ETC.

Answer: Efficiency = (ATP produced / Total NADH + FADH2) x 100% = (35 + 15) / (15 + 7) x 100% ≈ 62.96%.

77. Question: A bacterium produces 10 moles of ATP through substrate-level phosphorylation during glycolysis. How many moles of glucose were consumed to produce this ATP?

Answer: If 1 mole of glucose produces 2 moles of ATP through glycolysis, then 10 moles of ATP require 10 / 2 = 5 moles of glucose.

78. Question: Calculate the respiratory quotient (RQ) for glucose if 4 moles of CO2 are produced and 8 moles of O2 are consumed during cellular respiration.

Answer: RQ = moles of CO2 produced / moles of O2 consumed = 4 / 8 = 0.5.

79. Question: A cell performs fermentation and produces 8 moles of ethanol (C2H5OH). How many moles of ATP are generated from glycolysis, assuming each ethanol molecule represents the end product of glycolysis?

Answer: 8 moles of ethanol imply the production of 8 moles of ATP through glycolysis.

80. Question: Calculate the theoretical yield of ATP from one mole of oleic acid (C18H34O2) during beta-oxidation. Each round of beta-oxidation generates 1 FADH2, 1 NADH, and 1 acetyl-CoA.

Answer: Oleic acid has 18 carbons, so it requires 8 rounds of beta-oxidation to produce 9 moles of acetyl-CoA. For each round, 1 FADH2 and 1 NADH are produced. Therefore, the theoretical yield is 9 moles of ATP (from acetyl-CoA) + 8 moles of ATP (from 8 FADH2) + 8 moles of ATP (from 8 NADH) = 25 moles of ATP.

81. Question: A mitochondrion has an electrochemical gradient that can generate 6 moles of ATP for every mole of NADH transported into the matrix. How many moles of ATP can be produced from 8 moles of NADH?

Answer: 8 moles of NADH can produce 8 x 6 = 48 moles of ATP.

82. Question: Calculate the efficiency of ATP production from one mole of oleic acid (C18H34O2) during beta-oxidation, assuming complete oxidation to CO2 and H2O.

Answer: Oleic acid yields 146 ATP through beta-oxidation. The energy content of one mole of oleic acid is approximately 2828 kcal/mol. The efficiency is (146 x 7.3 kcal/mol) / 2828 kcal/mol x 100% ≈ 3.78%.

83. Question: In glycolysis, one mole of glucose (C6H12O6) is converted to three moles of pyruvate (C3H4O3). Calculate the net ATP production from glycolysis.

84. Question: A muscle cell produces 18 moles of lactate (C3H6O3) through lactic acid fermentation. How many moles of glucose were consumed to produce this lactate?

85. Question: Calculate the efficiency of ATP synthesis during glycolysis, given that 1 mole of glucose produces 3 moles of ATP and consumes 2 moles of ATP as an initial investment.

Answer: Efficiency = (Net ATP produced / ATP consumed) x 100% = (3 / 2) x 100% ≈ 150%.

86. Question: During oxidative phosphorylation, 5 moles of H+ ions are pumped through the ATP synthase. How many moles of ATP can be generated from this process?

87. Question: A cell performs fermentation and produces 4 moles of lactate (C3H6O3). How many moles of ATP are generated from glycolysis, assuming each lactate molecule represents the end product of glycolysis?

Answer: 4 moles of lactate

imply the production of 4 moles of ATP through glycolysis.

88. Question: Calculate the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, given that 15 moles of NADH yield 35 moles of ATP and 7 moles of FADH2 yield 15 moles of ATP in the ETC.

Answer: Efficiency = (ATP produced / Total NADH + FADH2) x 100% = (35 + 15) / (15 + 7) x 100% ≈ 62.96%.

89. Question: A bacterium produces 10 moles of ATP through substrate-level phosphorylation during glycolysis. How many moles of glucose were consumed to produce this ATP?

90. Question: Calculate the respiratory quotient (RQ) for glucose if 4 moles of CO2 are produced and 8 moles of O2 are consumed during cellular respiration.

Answer: RQ = moles of CO2 produced / moles of O2 consumed = 4 / 8 = 0.5.

91. Question: A cell performs fermentation and produces 8 moles of ethanol (C2H5OH). How many moles of ATP are generated from glycolysis, assuming each ethanol molecule represents the end product of glycolysis?

Answer: 8 moles of ethanol imply the production of 8 moles of ATP through glycolysis.

92. Question: Calculate the theoretical yield of ATP from one mole of oleic acid (C18H34O2) during beta-oxidation. Each round of beta-oxidation generates 1 FADH2, 1 NADH, and 1 acetyl-CoA.

93. Question: A mitochondrion has an electrochemical gradient that can generate 6 moles of ATP for every mole of NADH transported into the matrix. How many moles of ATP can be produced from 8 moles of NADH?

Answer: 8 moles of NADH can produce 8 x 6 = 48 moles of ATP.

94. Question: Calculate the efficiency of ATP production from one mole of oleic acid (C18H34O2) during beta-oxidation, assuming complete oxidation to CO2 and H2O.

95. Question: In glycolysis, one mole of glucose (C6H12O6) is converted to three moles of pyruvate (C3H4O3). Calculate the net ATP production from glycolysis.

96. Question: A muscle cell produces 18 moles of lactate (C3H6O3) through lactic acid fermentation. How many moles of glucose were consumed to produce this lactate?

97. Question: Calculate the efficiency of ATP synthesis during glycolysis, given that 1 mole of glucose produces 3 moles of ATP and consumes 2 moles of ATP as an initial investment.

Answer: Efficiency = (Net ATP produced / ATP consumed) x 100% = (3 / 2) x 100% ≈ 150%.

98. Question: During oxidative phosphorylation, 5 moles of H+ ions are pumped through the ATP synthase. How many moles of ATP can be generated from this process?

99. Question: A cell performs fermentation and produces 4 moles of lactate (C3H6O3). How many moles of ATP are generated from glycolysis, assuming each lactate molecule represents the end product of glycolysis?

Answer: 4 moles of lactate imply the production of 4 moles of ATP through glycolysis.

100. Question: Calculate the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, given that 15 moles of NADH yield 35 moles of ATP and 7 moles of FADH2 yield 15 moles of ATP in the ETC.

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